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These were exchanged for local iron or raw silk. After the 2nd century CE, as Chinese influence waned, iron ingots came into use as currency for the trade based around Jinhan and Byeonhan.

Trade relations also existed with the emergent states of Japan at this time, most commonly involving the exchange of ornamental Japanese bronzeware for Korean iron.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Period of Korean history. For the Gaelic festival, see Samhain.

Part of a series on the. Jeulmun Mumun. Korean History in Maps. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 16 April The Kyunghyang Shinmun.

Retrieved 2 July Chosun Ilbo. National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. Retrieved 10 September Multitree: A digital library of language relationships.

In Frawley, William J. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. In Comrie, Bernard ed. The World's Major Languages 2nd ed.

London: Routledge. Robert A History of the Korean Language. Hidden categories: CS1 Korean-language sources ko Webarchive template wayback links Articles with short description Articles containing Korean-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Namespaces Article Talk.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Brian Duignan , Senior Editor. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.

Beltine is…. On the day corresponding to November 1 on contemporary calendars, the new year was believed to begin. That date was considered the beginning of the winter period, the date on which the herds were returned from….

Celtic religion , religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Celts. The Celts, an ancient Indo-European people, reached the apogee of their influence and territorial expansion during the 4th century bc , extending across the length of Europe from Britain to Asia Minor.

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Korean History in Maps. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 16 April The Kyunghyang Shinmun. Retrieved 2 July Chosun Ilbo. National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage.

Retrieved 10 September Multitree: A digital library of language relationships. In Frawley, William J. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics.

Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. In Comrie, Bernard ed. The World's Major Languages 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

Robert A History of the Korean Language. Hidden categories: CS1 Korean-language sources ko Webarchive template wayback links Articles with short description Articles containing Korean-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Gaya confederacy.

Later Silla Unified Silla. Later Baekje. Japanese rule. Provisional Government. One Samhain, the young Fionn mac Cumhaill is able to stay awake and slays Aillen with a magical spear, for which he is made leader of the fianna.

Fionn's thumb is caught between the door and the post as it shuts, and he puts it in his mouth to ease the pain. As his thumb had been inside the Otherworld, Fionn is bestowed with great wisdom.

This may refer to gaining knowledge from the ancestors. Some tales may suggest that offerings or sacrifices were made at Samhain.

The Fomorians seem to represent the harmful or destructive powers of nature; personifications of chaos, darkness, death, blight and drought.

They say that King Tigernmas , and three-fourths of his people, died while worshiping Crom Cruach there one Samhain. The legendary kings Diarmait mac Cerbaill and Muirchertach mac Ercae each die a threefold death on Samhain, which involves wounding, burning and drowning, and of which they are forewarned.

He is warned of his impending doom by three undead horsemen who are messengers of Donn , god of the dead. It says that each year someone would be killed "to mark the occasion", by persons unknown.

He offers a prize to whoever can make it to a gallows and tie a band around a hanged man's ankle. Each challenger is thwarted by demons and runs back to the king's hall in fear.

However, Nera succeeds, and the dead man then asks for a drink. Nera carries him on his back and they stop at three houses. They enter the third, where the dead man drinks and spits it on the householders, killing them.

Returning, Nera sees a fairy host burning the king's hall and slaughtering those inside. He follows the host through a portal into the Otherworld.

Nera learns that what he saw was only a vision of what will happen the next Samhain unless something is done.

He is able to return to the hall and warns the king. Mongfind offers Crimthann a poisoned drink at a feast, but he asks her to drink from it first.

Having no other choice but to drink the poison, she dies on Samhain eve. Many other events in Irish mythology happen or begin on Samhain.

As cattle-raiding typically was a summer activity, the invasion during this off-season surprised the Ulstermen.

Several sites in Ireland are especially linked to Samhain. Each Samhain a host of otherworldly beings was said to emerge from Oweynagat "cave of the cats" , at Rathcroghan in County Roscommon.

The only historic reference to pagan religious rites is in the work of Geoffrey Keating died , but his source is unknown. Hutton says it may be that no religious rites are mentioned because, centuries after Christianization, the writers had no record of them.

He says that the gatherings of royalty and warriors on Samhain may simply have been an ideal setting for such tales, in the same way that many Arthurian tales are set at courtly gatherings at Christmas or Pentecost.

Samhain was one of the four main festivals of the Gaelic calendar, marking the end of the harvest and beginning of winter.

It involved great gatherings at which they held meetings, feasted, drank alcohol, and held contests [19] The Celts also recorded horse racing as part of their Samhain festivities.

He claims that the feis of Tara was held for a week every third Samhain, when the nobles and ollams of Ireland met to lay down and renew the laws , and to feast.

He adds that all other fires were doused and then re-lit from this bonfire. Traditionally, Samhain was a time to take stock of the herds and food supplies.

Cattle were brought down to the winter pastures after six months in the higher summer pastures. This custom is still observed by many who farm and raise livestock [3] [50] because it is when meat will keep since the freeze has come and also since summer grass is gone and free foraging is no longer possible.

It is thought that some of the rituals associated with the slaughter have been transferred to other winter holidays. On St. Martin's Day 11 November in Ireland, an animal—usually a rooster , goose or sheep—would be slaughtered and some of its blood sprinkled on the threshold of the house.

It was offered to Saint Martin , who may have taken the place of a god or gods, [51] and it was then eaten as part of a feast.

This custom was common in parts of Ireland until the 19th century, [52] and was found in some other parts of Europe. At New Year in the Hebrides , a man dressed in a cowhide would circle the township sunwise.

A bit of the hide would be burnt and everyone would breathe in the smoke. As at Bealtaine, bonfires were lit on hilltops at Samhain and there were rituals involving them.

Marian McNeill says that a force-fire or need-fire was the traditional way of lighting them, but notes that this method gradually died out.

In Moray , boys asked for bonfire fuel from each house in the village. When the fire was lit, "one after another of the youths laid himself down on the ground as near to the fire as possible so as not to be burned, and in such a position as to let the smoke roll over him.

The others ran through the smoke and jumped over him". When the bonfire burnt down, they scattered the ashes, vying with each other who should scatter them most.

The bones of slaughtered cattle were said to have been cast upon bonfires. In the pre-Christian Gaelic world, cattle were the main form of wealth and were the center of agricultural and pastoral life.

People also took flames from the bonfire back to their homes. In parts of Scotland, torches of burning fir or turf were carried sunwise around homes and fields to protect them.

Each family then solemnly re-lit its hearth from the communal bonfire, thus bonding the community together. The bonfires were used in divination rituals, although not all divination involved fire.

In 18th century Ochtertyre , a ring of stones—one for each person—was laid round the fire, perhaps on a layer of ashes.

Everyone then ran round it with a torch, "exulting". In the morning, the stones were examined and if any was mislaid it was said that the person it represented would not live out the year.

A similar custom was observed in northern Wales [56] and in Brittany. At household festivities throughout the Gaelic regions and Wales, there were many rituals intended to divine the future of those gathered, especially with regard to death and marriage.

In Celtic mythology , apples were strongly associated with the Otherworld and immortality, while hazelnuts were associated with divine wisdom.

Another involved hanging a small wooden rod from the ceiling at head height, with a lit candle on one end and an apple hanging from the other.

The rod was spun round and everyone took turns to try to catch the apple with their teeth. Two hazelnuts were roasted near a fire; one named for the person roasting them and the other for the person they desired.

If the nuts jumped away from the heat, it was a bad sign, but if the nuts roasted quietly it foretold a good match. A person's future was foretold by the item they happened to find; for example a ring meant marriage and a coin meant wealth.

This was said to result in a dream in which their future spouse offers them a drink to quench their thirst. Children would also chase crows and divine some of these things from the number of birds or the direction they flew.

As noted earlier, Samhain was seen as a liminal time, when the boundary between this world and the Otherworld could more easily be crossed.

One custom—described a "blatant example" of a "pagan rite surviving into the Christian epoch"—was observed in the Outer Hebrides until the early 19th century.

On 31 October, the locals would go down to the shore. One man would wade into the water up to his waist, where he would pour out a cup of ale and ask ' Seonaidh ' 'Shoney' , whom he called "god of the sea", to bestow blessings on them.

They stayed near to home or, if forced to walk in the darkness, turned their clothing inside-out or carried iron or salt to keep them at bay.

The beginning of winter may have been seen as the most fitting time to do so, as it was a time of 'dying' in nature. Places were set at the dinner table and by the fire to welcome them.

The belief that the souls of the dead return home on one night of the year and must be appeased seems to have ancient origins and is found in many cultures throughout the world.

Mumming and guising was a part of Samhain from at least the 16th century and was recorded in parts of Ireland, Scotland, Mann and Wales. Peddle suggests the guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".

At each they recited verses, some of which "savoured strongly of paganism", and the farmer was expected to donate food.

If the farmer donated food he could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune. In Wales the white horse is often seen as an omen of death.

However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".

Hutton writes: "When imitating malignant spirits it was a very short step from guising to playing pranks". Playing pranks at Samhain is recorded in the Scottish Highlands as far back as and was also common in Ireland, which led to Samhain being nicknamed "Mischief Night" in some parts.

The "traditional illumination for guisers or pranksters abroad on the night in some places was provided by turnips or mangel wurzels , hollowed out to act as lanterns and often carved with grotesque faces".

By those who made them, the lanterns were variously said to represent the spirits or supernatural beings, [88] or were used to ward off evil spirits.

In the 20th century they spread to other parts of England and became generally known as jack-o'-lanterns.

During the late 19th and early 20th century Celtic Revival , there was an upswell of interest in Samhain and the other Celtic festivals.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Brian Duignan , Senior Editor. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.

Beltine is…. On the day corresponding to November 1 on contemporary calendars, the new year was believed to begin.

That date was considered the beginning of the winter period, the date on which the herds were returned from….

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